Updated : Feb 12, 2020 in Research Articles

CDI Lab Explores Pathway to Open up Blood Cancer Treatments

February 12, 2020, Nutley, NJ – Reversing runaway inflammation in the bone marrow could lead to major breakthroughs in treatments for some blood cancers, according…

Updated : Feb 12, 2020 in Research Articles

Atom or noise? New method helps cryo-EM researchers tell the difference

Cryogenic electron microscopy, or cryo-EM, has reached the point where researchers could in principle image individual atoms in a 3D reconstruction of a molecule –…

Updated : Feb 12, 2020 in Research Articles

Faith-centered Tattoos Are Analyzed in Study of University Students

With more than a quarter of U.S. adults now having tattoos — and nearly half of millennials sporting them — only a handful of studies…

Updated : Feb 12, 2020 in Research Articles

Mount Sinai Discovers New Drug Combo to Induce High Rates of Human Beta Cell Regeneration

Researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai have discovered a novel combination of two classes of drugs that, together, cause the highest…

Updated : Feb 12, 2020 in Research Articles

Consumers may be wasting more than twice as much food as commonly believed

    Consumers are likely wasting much more food than commonly believed, according to a study published February 12, 2020 in the open-access journal PLOS…

Updated : Feb 12, 2020 in Research Articles

Climate-Driven Farming “Frontiers” Pose Major Environmental Risks

    Future farming in regions that were previously unsuitable for agriculture could significantly impact biodiversity, water resources, and greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Lee Hannah…

Updated : Feb 12, 2020 in Research Articles

CRISPR “Minigene” Approach Stops Genetic Liver Disease in Mice

PHILADELPHIA—A new CRISPR gene-editing technique prevented a genetic liver disease known to be driven by hundreds of different mutations and improved clinical symptoms in mice,…

Updated : Feb 12, 2020 in Research Articles

Designer Probiotic Treatment for Cancer Immunotherapy

Designer Probiotic Treatment for Cancer Immunotherapy  Columbia biomedical engineers have designed a novel probiotic strain that after a single dose can seek out solid tumors…

Updated : Feb 12, 2020 in Research Articles

Antibiotics discovered that kill bacteria in a new way: McMaster

Under embargo by Nature until 1 p.m. EST Wednesday, Feb. 12, 2020  Media Release   Antibiotics discovered that kill bacteria in a new way: McMaster…

Updated : Feb 12, 2020 in Policy

USMLE Program Announces Upcoming Policy Changes

PHILADELPHIA, PA (February 12, 2020) – Today, the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners® (NBME®), co-sponsors of the…

Updated : Feb 12, 2020 in Feature

Toxicological Research on E-cigarettes, PFAS, Cannabinoids, Wildfires, and More to Be Presented during the SOT 59th Annual Meeting and ToxExpo

Reston, Va.; February 12, 2020—With more than 80 Featured and Scientific Sessions and 2,000+ presentations showcasing advances in fundamental and translational sciences and emerging disciplines…

Updated : Feb 12, 2020 in Research Articles

Having fewer children reduced the education gap in China

COLUMBUS, Ohio – A new study uses China’s one-child policy to show that having fewer children leads women to achieve higher levels of education.  The…

Updated : Feb 12, 2020 in Research Articles

Study: Diet Makes a Difference in Fight Against Hospital-Acquired Infection

Popular diets low in carbs and high in fat and protein might be good for the waistline, but a new UNLV study shows that just…

Updated : Feb 12, 2020 in Research Articles

Gay and bisexual men have higher rate of skin cancer

Boston, MA -- In the largest study of skin cancer rates among gay, lesbian or bisexual individuals, investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital report important differences in…

Updated : Feb 12, 2020 in Research Articles

Selon une étude, certaines cellules du foie pourraient contribuer à prévenir le rejet d’organe après une greffe ainsi que d’autres pathologies

ROCHESTER, Minnesota — Les cellules mésenchymateuses stromales provenant du tissu adipeux et de la moelle osseuse sont largement utilisées dans les essais thérapeutiques pour leurs…

Updated : Feb 12, 2020 in Research Articles

从捐献肾脏细微的结构特征或可预测移植失败的风险

明尼苏达州,罗切斯特 — Mayo Clinic的研究人员发现,活体捐献者的肾脏中有一些用显微镜才能观察到的细微结构特征,从这些结构特征中或许可以预测肾脏在接受者体内移植失败的风险。这一发现发表于在线版的Journal of the American Society of Nephrology《美国肾脏学会期刊》上。   “我们认为,活体捐献者肾脏存在细微的异常,可能会使肾脏在未来移植到接受者身上时更容易失败。”Mayo Clinic的肾病专家、该研究的主要作者医学博士Naim Issa表示。“既往有一些预测肾脏器官移植受者失败的因素并未获得认可,而上述重要发现可能使人们对这些预测因素有新的见解。”   据器官劝募和移植网络报告,去年美国的活体器官捐献达到历史新高,有将近7,400例活体捐献者移植。尽管如此,愿意捐献器官的人数仍然远远少于有移植需求的人数。在美国,有将近95,000人正在等待挽救生命的肾移植。Issa医生指出,对于需要肾移植的患者,找到活体捐献者往往是他们的最佳选择。这是因为来自活体捐献者的肾脏通常比已故捐献者的肾脏寿命更长,并且活体肾脏捐献者在捐献后有良好的预后。   在评估捐献肾脏的质量时,移植专家通常会考虑捐献者的年龄、风险因素和肾功能等信息。这些捐献者还会接受全面的医学检查,以确保他们的健康状况符合捐献者的要求。但是,有些器官接受者比其他接受者更早地出现移植失败的情况。   作为研究的一部分,Mayo Clinic的肾病专家医学博士Andrew Rule 和Issa医生带领的研究小组对2,293对捐献者和接受者进行了评估。在捐献者的肾脏取出以待植入接受者体内时,他们对肾脏进行了活检。根据这项研究的结果,肾脏的某些结构特征可能会影响肾脏移植后的寿命。   这些细微的结构特征包括:…

Updated : Feb 12, 2020 in Research Articles

Mayo Clinic研究发现了一种修复中枢神经系统疾病的分子开关

罗切斯特,明尼苏达州 — Mayo Clinic研究人员发现,一种分子开关能在动物体内启动一种物质,从而修复多发性硬化症等疾病中的神经损伤。在动物模型中进行的早期研究有望推动这一已获得美国食品药品监督管理局批准的疗法,同时还可能促成治疗中枢神经系统疾病的新策略。 由Isobel Scarisbrick博士开展的研究发现,通过在基因上关闭一种由血液蛋白质激活的称为蛋白酶激活受体1 (PAR1)的受体,机体可以开启髓鞘再生。髓鞘是一种覆盖并保护神经的脂肪物质。该研究发表于《神经科学杂志》(Journal of Neuroscience) “髓鞘再生具有改善机体功能的巨大潜力。我们已经证明,在阻断PAR1受体的情况下,神经系统的恢复情况更好,并且速度更快。在许多情况下,神经系统确实具有良好的先天修复能力。”首席研究员兼高级作者Scarisbrick博士说,“这为开发新的临床相关髓鞘再生策略奠定了基础。” 髓鞘、凝血酶和神经系统 髓鞘的作用就像电线绝缘体,可保护通过神经系统传递的信号。脱髓鞘或髓鞘损伤会减慢脑细胞之间的电信号传递,导致感觉和运动功能丧失。这种损害有时是永久性的。多发性硬化症、阿尔茨海默氏症、亨廷顿病、精神分裂症和脊髓损伤等病症中均存在脱髓鞘情况。 凝血酶是血液中的一种帮助愈合的蛋白质。但是,凝血酶过多会触发存在于细胞表面的PAR1受体,而这会阻止髓鞘的产生。具有髓鞘再生能力的少突胶质前体细胞通常存在于髓鞘损伤部位,包括多发性硬化症中的脱髓鞘损伤。 “这些少突胶质细胞不能分化为成熟的髓鞘再生细胞的原因目前仍不明确,”Scarisbrick博士说,“我们的研究确定PAR1是髓鞘再生的分子开关。在这项研究中,我们证明,在两个独特的脱髓鞘疾病实验模型中阻断PAR1(也称为凝血酶受体)可促进髓鞘再生。” 研究 该研究重点关注两个小鼠模型,一个是髓鞘损伤的急性模型,另一个模型则研究了慢性脱髓鞘。两个模型都模拟了多发性硬化症、阿尔茨海默氏症和其他神经系统疾病中髓鞘损失的独特特征。研究人员在基因上阻断了PAR1以阻止凝血酶过量的作用。 这项研究不仅发现了一种新的开启髓鞘再生的分子开关,还发现了PAR1受体与一个非常强大的生长系统(脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF))之间的新的相互作用。BDNF就像是一种肥料,使脑细胞保持健康、运转和生长。 值得注意的是,研究人员发现,目前已获得美国食品药品监督管理局批准的抑制PAR1受体的药物也表现出能够促进实验室试验细胞中的髓鞘产生。 “要强调的是,我们之前没有提倡患者使用这种抑制剂,目前也同样不提倡。”Scarisbrick博士说,“我们尚未在动物中使用过这种药物,并且还没有准备好将其用于对患者进行髓鞘修复。使用细胞培养系统,我们证明了这种方法具有改善髓鞘再生的潜力。” 目前仍需开展额外研究来验证这项研究的发现并将其推广到临床实践。 这项研究由国家多发性硬化症协会资助,并得到了Mayo Clinic康复医学研究中心、多发性硬化症和自身免疫神经病学中心以及Mayo Clinic Center for…

Updated : Feb 12, 2020 in Research Articles

Medizinstudentin bei Mayo leistet Starthilfe für Fakultätslehrplan, um Menschenhandelsopfer zu ermitteln

PHOENIX, Arizona — Menschenhandel ist eine wachsende Sorge der internationalen öffentlichen Gesundheit. Geschätzte 400.000 Personen in den USA sind davon betroffen, wobei bis zu 88%…

Updated : Feb 12, 2020 in Research Articles

The use of jargon kills people’s interest in science, politics

COLUMBUS, Ohio – When scientists and others use their specialized jargon terms while communicating with the general public, the effects are much worse than just…

Updated : Feb 12, 2020 in Research Articles

Do soils need a low-salt diet?

February 12, 2020 – Doctors often tell their patients to reduce their salt intake as part of a healthy lifestyle. When we start looking at food…

Updated : Feb 12, 2020 in Research Articles

Small altitude changes could cut the climate impact of aircraft

Contrails — the white, fluffy streaks in the sky that form behind planes — can harm the environment. Now, scientists report in ACS’ Environmental Science…